* De-serialization disabled */ private function __wakeup() { } /** * Callback function WP plugin_loaded action hook. Loads locale * * @since 4.2 * @access public */ public function pluginsLoaded() { // Setup locale do_action( 'vc_plugins_loaded' ); load_plugin_textdomain( 'js_composer', false, $this->path( 'APP_DIR', 'locale' ) ); } /** * Callback function for WP init action hook. Sets Vc mode and loads required objects. * * @since 4.2 * @access public * * @return void */ public function init() { do_action( 'vc_before_init' ); $this->setMode(); do_action( 'vc_after_set_mode' ); /** * Set version of VC if required. */ $this->setVersion(); // Load required ! vc_is_updater_disabled() && vc_updater()->init(); /** * Init default hooks and options to load. */ $this->vc()->init(); /** * if is admin and not front end editor. */ is_admin() && ! vc_is_frontend_editor() && $this->asAdmin(); /** * if frontend editor is enabled init editor. */ vc_enabled_frontend() && vc_frontend_editor()->init(); do_action( 'vc_before_mapping' ); // VC ACTION // Include default shortcodes. $this->mapper()->init(); //execute all required do_action( 'vc_after_mapping' ); // VC ACTION // Load && Map shortcodes from Automapper. vc_automapper()->map(); if ( vc_user_access()->wpAny( 'manage_options' )->part( 'settings' )->can( 'vc-updater-tab' )->get() ) { vc_license()->setupReminder(); } do_action( 'vc_after_init' ); } /** * @return Vc_Current_User_Access * @since 4.8 */ public function getCurrentUserAccess() { if ( ! $this->current_user_access ) { require_once vc_path_dir( 'CORE_DIR', 'access/class-vc-current-user-access.php' ); $this->current_user_access = new Vc_Current_User_Access(); } return $this->current_user_access; } /** * @param false|Vc_Current_User_Access $current_user_access */ public function setCurrentUserAccess( $current_user_access ) { $this->current_user_access = $current_user_access; } /** * @return Vc_Role_Access * @since 4.8 */ public function getRoleAccess() { if ( ! $this->role_access ) { require_once vc_path_dir( 'CORE_DIR', 'access/class-vc-role-access.php' ); $this->role_access = new Vc_Role_Access(); } return $this->role_access; } /** * @param false|Vc_Role_Access $role_access */ public function setRoleAccess( $role_access ) { $this->role_access = $role_access; } /** * Enables to add hooks in activation process. * @since 4.5 * * @param $networkWide */ public function activationHook( $networkWide = false ) { do_action( 'vc_activation_hook', $networkWide ); } /** * Load required components to enable useful functionality. * * @access public * @since 4.4 */ public function loadComponents() { $manifest_file = apply_filters( 'vc_autoload_components_manifest_file', vc_path_dir( 'AUTOLOAD_DIR', $this->components_manifest ) ); if ( is_file( $manifest_file ) ) { ob_start(); require_once $manifest_file; $data = ob_get_clean(); if ( $data ) { $components = (array) json_decode( $data ); $components = apply_filters( 'vc_autoload_components_list', $components ); $dir = vc_path_dir( 'AUTOLOAD_DIR' ); foreach ( $components as $component => $description ) { $component_path = $dir . '/' . $component; if ( false === strpos( $component_path, '*' ) ) { require_once $component_path; } else { $components_paths = glob( $component_path ); if ( is_array( $components_paths ) ) { foreach ( $components_paths as $path ) { if ( false === strpos( $path, '*' ) ) { require_once $path; } } } } } } } } /** * Load required logic for operating in Wp Admin dashboard. * * @since 4.2 * @access protected * * @return void */ protected function asAdmin() { vc_license()->init(); vc_backend_editor()->addHooksSettings(); } /** * Set VC mode. * * Mode depends on which page is requested by client from server and request parameters like vc_action. * * @since 4.2 * @access protected * * @return void */ protected function setMode() { /** * TODO: Create another system (When ajax rebuild). * Use vc_action param to define mode. * 1. admin_frontend_editor - set by editor or request param * 2. admin_backend_editor - set by editor or request param * 3. admin_frontend_editor_ajax - set by request param * 4. admin_backend_editor_ajax - set by request param * 5. admin_updater - by vc_action * 6. page_editable - by vc_action */ if ( is_admin() ) { if ( 'vc_inline' === vc_action() ) { vc_user_access()->wpAny( array( 'edit_post', (int) vc_request_param( 'post_id' ), ) )->validateDie()->part( 'frontend_editor' )->can()->validateDie(); $this->mode = 'admin_frontend_editor'; } elseif ( ( vc_user_access()->wpAny( 'edit_posts', 'edit_pages' ) ->get() ) && ( 'vc_upgrade' === vc_action() || ( 'update-selected' === vc_get_param( 'action' ) && $this->pluginName() === vc_get_param( 'plugins' ) ) ) ) { $this->mode = 'admin_updater'; } elseif ( vc_user_access()->wpAny( 'manage_options' )->get() && isset( $_GET['page'] ) && array_key_exists( $_GET['page'], vc_settings()->getTabs() ) ) { $this->mode = 'admin_settings_page'; } else { $this->mode = 'admin_page'; } } else { if ( isset( $_GET['vc_editable'] ) && 'true' === $_GET['vc_editable'] ) { vc_user_access()->checkAdminNonce()->validateDie()->wpAny( array( 'edit_post', (int) vc_request_param( 'vc_post_id' ), ) )->validateDie()->part( 'frontend_editor' )->can()->validateDie(); $this->mode = 'page_editable'; } else { $this->mode = 'page'; } } } /** * Sets version of the VC in DB as option `vc_version` * * @since 4.3.2 * @access protected * * @return void */ protected function setVersion() { $version = get_option( 'vc_version' ); if ( ! is_string( $version ) || version_compare( $version, WPB_VC_VERSION ) !== 0 ) { add_action( 'vc_after_init', array( vc_settings(), 'rebuild', ) ); update_option( 'vc_version', WPB_VC_VERSION ); } } /** * Get current mode for VC. * * @since 4.2 * @access public * * @return string */ public function mode() { return $this->mode; } /** * Setter for paths * * @since 4.2 * @access protected * * @param $paths */ protected function setPaths( $paths ) { $this->paths = $paths; } /** * Gets absolute path for file/directory in filesystem. * * @since 4.2 * @access public * * @param $name - name of path dir * @param string $file - file name or directory inside path * * @return string */ public function path( $name, $file = '' ) { $path = $this->paths[ $name ] . ( strlen( $file ) > 0 ? '/' . preg_replace( '/^\//', '', $file ) : '' ); return apply_filters( 'vc_path_filter', $path ); } /** * Set default post types. Vc editors are enabled for such kind of posts. * * @param array $type - list of default post types. */ public function setEditorDefaultPostTypes( array $type ) { $this->editor_default_post_types = $type; } /** * Returns list of default post types where user can use visual composer editors. * * @since 4.2 * @access public * * @return array */ public function editorDefaultPostTypes() { return $this->editor_default_post_types; } /** * Get post types where VC editors are enabled. * * @since 4.2 * @access public * * @return array */ public function editorPostTypes() { if ( is_null( $this->editor_post_types ) ) { $post_types = array_keys( vc_user_access()->part( 'post_types' )->getAllCaps() ); $this->editor_post_types = $post_types ? $post_types : $this->editorDefaultPostTypes(); } return $this->editor_post_types; } /** * Set post types where VC editors are enabled. * * @since 4.4 * @access public * * @param array $post_types */ public function setEditorPostTypes( array $post_types ) { $this->editor_post_types = ! empty( $post_types ) ? $post_types : $this->editorDefaultPostTypes(); require_once ABSPATH . 'wp-admin/includes/user.php'; $editable_roles = get_editable_roles(); foreach ( $editable_roles as $role => $settings ) { $part = vc_role_access()->who( $role )->part( 'post_types' ); $all_post_types = $part->getAllCaps(); foreach ( $all_post_types as $post_type => $value ) { $part->getRole()->remove_cap( $part->getStateKey() . '/' . $post_type ); } $part->setState( 'custom' ); foreach ( $this->editor_post_types as $post_type ) { $part->setCapRule( $post_type ); } } } /** * Setter for as-theme-plugin status for VC. * * @since 4.2 * @access public * * @param bool $value */ public function setIsAsTheme( $value = true ) { $this->is_as_theme = (boolean) $value; } /** * Get as-theme-plugin status * * As theme plugin status used by theme developers. It disables settings * * @since 4.2 * @access public * * @return bool */ public function isAsTheme() { return (boolean) $this->is_as_theme; } /** * Setter for as network plugin for MultiWP. * * @since 4.2 * @access public * * @param bool $value */ public function setAsNetworkPlugin( $value = true ) { $this->is_network_plugin = $value; } /** * Gets VC is activated as network plugin. * * @since 4.2 * @access public * * @return bool */ public function isNetworkPlugin() { if ( is_null( $this->is_network_plugin ) ) { // Check is VC as network plugin if ( is_multisite() && ( is_plugin_active_for_network( $this->pluginName() ) || is_network_only_plugin( $this->pluginName() ) ) ) { $this->setAsNetworkPlugin( true ); } } return $this->is_network_plugin ? true : false; } /** * Setter for disable updater variable. * @since 4.2 * @see * * @param bool $value */ public function disableUpdater( $value = true ) { $this->disable_updater = $value; } /** * Get is vc updater is disabled; * * @since 4.2 * @see to where updater will be * * @return bool */ public function isUpdaterDisabled() { return is_admin() && $this->disable_updater; } /** * Set user directory name. * * Directory name is the directory name vc should scan for custom shortcodes template. * * @since 4.2 * @access public * * @param $dir - path to shortcodes templates inside developers theme */ public function setCustomUserShortcodesTemplateDir( $dir ) { preg_replace( '/\/$/', '', $dir ); $this->custom_user_templates_dir = $dir; } /** * Get default directory where shortcodes templates area placed. * * @since 4.2 * @access public * * @return string - path to default shortcodes */ public function getDefaultShortcodesTemplatesDir() { return vc_path_dir( 'TEMPLATES_DIR', 'shortcodes' ); } /** * * Get shortcodes template dir. * * @since 4.2 * @access public * * @param $template * * @return string */ public function getShortcodesTemplateDir( $template ) { return false !== $this->custom_user_templates_dir ? $this->custom_user_templates_dir . '/' . $template : locate_template( 'vc_templates' . '/' . $template ); } /** * Directory name where template files will be stored. * * @since 4.2 * @access public * * @return string */ public function uploadDir() { return 'js_composer'; } /** * Getter for VC_Mapper instance * * @since 4.2 * @access public * * @return Vc_Mapper */ public function mapper() { if ( ! isset( $this->factory['mapper'] ) ) { require_once $this->path( 'CORE_DIR', 'class-vc-mapper.php' ); $this->factory['mapper'] = new Vc_Mapper(); } return $this->factory['mapper']; } /** * Visual Composer. * * @since 4.2 * @access public * * @return Vc_Base */ public function vc() { if ( ! isset( $this->factory['vc'] ) ) { do_action( 'vc_before_init_vc' ); require_once $this->path( 'CORE_DIR', 'class-vc-base.php' ); $vc = new Vc_Base(); // DI Set template new modal editor. require_once $this->path( 'EDITORS_DIR', 'popups/class-vc-templates-panel-editor.php' ); require_once $this->path( 'CORE_DIR', 'shared-templates/class-vc-shared-templates.php' ); $vc->setTemplatesPanelEditor( new Vc_Templates_Panel_Editor() ); // Create shared templates $vc->shared_templates = new Vc_Shared_Templates(); // DI Set edit form require_once $this->path( 'EDITORS_DIR', 'popups/class-vc-shortcode-edit-form.php' ); $vc->setEditForm( new Vc_Shortcode_Edit_Form() ); $this->factory['vc'] = $vc; do_action( 'vc_after_init_vc' ); } return $this->factory['vc']; } /** * Vc options. * * @since 4.2 * @access public * * @return Vc_Settings */ public function settings() { if ( ! isset( $this->factory['settings'] ) ) { do_action( 'vc_before_init_settings' ); require_once $this->path( 'SETTINGS_DIR', 'class-vc-settings.php' ); $this->factory['settings'] = new Vc_Settings(); do_action( 'vc_after_init_settings' ); } return $this->factory['settings']; } /** * Vc license settings. * * @since 4.2 * @access public * * @return Vc_License */ public function license() { if ( ! isset( $this->factory['license'] ) ) { do_action( 'vc_before_init_license' ); require_once $this->path( 'SETTINGS_DIR', 'class-vc-license.php' ); $this->factory['license'] = new Vc_License(); do_action( 'vc_after_init_license' ); } return $this->factory['license']; } /** * Get frontend VC editor. * * @since 4.2 * @access public * * @return Vc_Frontend_Editor */ public function frontendEditor() { if ( ! isset( $this->factory['frontend_editor'] ) ) { do_action( 'vc_before_init_frontend_editor' ); require_once $this->path( 'EDITORS_DIR', 'class-vc-frontend-editor.php' ); $this->factory['frontend_editor'] = new Vc_Frontend_Editor(); } return $this->factory['frontend_editor']; } /** * Get backend VC editor. Edit page version. * * @since 4.2 * * @return Vc_Backend_Editor */ public function backendEditor() { if ( ! isset( $this->factory['backend_editor'] ) ) { do_action( 'vc_before_init_backend_editor' ); require_once $this->path( 'EDITORS_DIR', 'class-vc-backend-editor.php' ); $this->factory['backend_editor'] = new Vc_Backend_Editor(); } return $this->factory['backend_editor']; } /** * Gets automapper instance. * * @since 4.2 * @access public * * @return Vc_Automapper */ public function automapper() { if ( ! isset( $this->factory['automapper'] ) ) { do_action( 'vc_before_init_automapper' ); require_once $this->path( 'SETTINGS_DIR', 'class-vc-automapper.php' ); $this->factory['automapper'] = new Vc_Automapper(); do_action( 'vc_after_init_automapper' ); } return $this->factory['automapper']; } /** * Gets updater instance. * @since 4.2 * * @return Vc_Updater */ public function updater() { if ( ! isset( $this->factory['updater'] ) ) { do_action( 'vc_before_init_updater' ); require_once $this->path( 'UPDATERS_DIR', 'class-vc-updater.php' ); $updater = new Vc_Updater(); require_once vc_path_dir( 'UPDATERS_DIR', 'class-vc-updating-manager.php' ); $updater->setUpdateManager( new Vc_Updating_Manager( WPB_VC_VERSION, $updater->versionUrl(), $this->pluginName() ) ); $this->factory['updater'] = $updater; do_action( 'vc_after_init_updater' ); } return $this->factory['updater']; } /** * Getter for plugin name variable. * @since 4.2 * * @return string */ public function pluginName() { return $this->plugin_name; } /** * @since 4.8.1 * */ public function setPluginName( $name ) { $this->plugin_name = $name; } /** * Get absolute url for VC asset file. * * Assets are css, javascript, less files and images. * * @since 4.2 * * @param $file * * @return string */ public function assetUrl( $file ) { return preg_replace( '/\s/', '%20', plugins_url( $this->path( 'ASSETS_DIR_NAME', $file ), __FILE__ ) ); } } /** * Main Visual composer manager. * @var Vc_Manager $vc_manager - instance of composer management. * @since 4.2 */ global $vc_manager; if ( ! $vc_manager ) { $vc_manager = Vc_Manager::getInstance(); // Load components $vc_manager->loadComponents(); } STEM 與未來教室面貌 – 非常空间

STEM 與未來教室面貌

December 28th, 2018 Posted by STEM No Comment yet

本港近年積極推動 STEM 教育,即科學(Science)、技術(Technology)、工程(Engineering)及數學(Mathematics)。我也留意到相比以往鋼琴和芭蕾舞等課外活動,不少朋友已讓子女從小參與如 3D 打印技術、運算思維及編程等 STEM 活動,培養他們的自主學習精神,提升思考及解難能力。早於 2015 年及 2016 年的施政報告中,政府便開展 STEM 教育發展和政策實施,將 STEM 元素融入常規課程,期望為本港培訓更多未來科技人才。

回望過去 10 多年,本港的電子教育經過不少轉變。還記得電子學習剛開始普及時,大部分學校只著重於購入硬件,除了電腦,更多是安裝無線投影機與屏幕等,展現更多元化與更豐富的教學內容。其後,學校逐漸發現他們不僅需要硬件升級,還期望在軟件上能支援教學,因此便看到電子學習平台的出現,學生能在網上提交功課及發問問題,大大增強互動性,突破課室空間侷限。

時至今日,STEM 的發展更大大刺激了學校、老師、家長與學生多方面對互動學習需求。特別是他們現在更追求移動教室,一方面要求設備方便攜帶,讓他們能隨時隨地進行教學或進行互動分組討論等,另一方面效能要足夠强大,讓教師可以用來進行各類科目的教學,學生們又可進行如編程、圖像設計、多媒體創作或監測及分析數據等需要較強效能及速度的研習或功課。這也是為什麼我們致力研發輕薄及體積較小的流動工作站電腦,為未來教室塑造新面貌。

我在前幾篇提過的 VR 虛擬實境技術也正為教育機構提供了更多元化教學方式、器材及內容。比如學生在學習地理知識時,可透過 VR 認識日常難以觸摸的事物,如海中的珊瑚甚至月球表面等,把較難直觀了解的知識以生動方式呈現,又可適時暫停解說或提問,提升教育體驗。我們早前嘗試跟學校合作,以輕易攜帶的 VR 裝置攝錄本地文化古蹟,再把片段帶回課室,讓同學利用VR親臨其境,認識古蹟設計與歷史意義。我期待看到更多這類教學應用,特別在工程或醫療學習上,創造更多體驗式學習(Experiential Learning)機會。

科技能大大推動 STEM 發展,但我相信要讓 STEM 普及起來,還需要更多跨界別的合作,並把學校、老師、家長與學生的需求更緊密地聯繫,全面提升教與學,才可帶來前所未有的學習體驗。

作者:黃斌

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